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Butler Hospital
Butler Hospital

The Team at the Mood Disorders Research Program

  • Polly Gobin, BA, Research Operations and Data Manager.

  • Dave McPhail, BSW.

  • Emma Welsh, BS, MS.

  • Eric Tirrel, BA.

  • Nicole Desrochers, BS.

  • Melissa S. Burt, RN, Research Nurse.

  • Michele Hutchinson, Administrative Assistant.

Lawrence H. Price, MD

Lawrence Price, MD, is president and COO of Butler Hospital and the executive chief of Care New England’s Brain and Behavioral Health Service Line. His primary research interests have involved the phenomenology, clinical psychopharmacology, neuropharmacology, and neurobiology of mood, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders. He has published extensively on pharmacologic approaches to the treatment of refractory and psychotic depression. In this regard, he conducted many of the early studies on the use of lithium augmentation, subsequently extending this work during investigations of fenfluramine, yohimbine, and neuroleptics as augmenting agents. Later studies in this area addressed the efficacy of glucocorticoid antagonists, maintenance electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, and atypical antidepressant combination approaches. He completed a large series of investigations concerning the effects of antidepressant drugs on serotonin function in humans, and was involved in pioneering studies demonstrating the relationship between intact serotonin function and antidepressant efficacy in depressed patients using the tryptophan depletion paradigm. He is currently engaged in a number of studies focused on mood disorders, including the cellular, neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and functional neurocircuitry sequelae of stress as a risk factor for major affective illness, the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation and other electrophysiological modalities in the treatment of refractory depression, and the development of novel pharmacological monotherapy and combination treatment approaches to mood and anxiety disorders.

Dr. Price was one of the principal developers of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), now considered the standard instrument for assessing treatment response in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). He was a lead investigator in the first controlled trial of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for the treatment of OCD in the United States, and has conducted numerous other studies on this condition, including research on symptom assessment, genetics, cerebrospinal fluid metabolite levels, neurochemical function, and novel pharmacologic treatment approaches. He was involved in the first controlled studies to examine the efficacy of combining conventional and atypical neuroleptics with SSRIs for the treatment of refractory OCD, as well as the first controlled studies of SSRIs and atypical neuroleptics in the treatment of autism. Dr. Price was active in investigating the clinical neurobiology of cocaine-induced euphoria and cocaine abstinence in humans, with more recent involvement in studies examining the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to the treatment of nicotine dependence. He has published nearly 450 scientific papers, and was identified by the Institute for Scientific Information as one of the top ten authors of high-impact papers in psychiatry from 1990 to 1999.

Dr. Price attended the University of Michigan, where he first received a BS with highest honors in psychology and high distinction in 1974, followed by an MD in 1978. After an internship in internal medicine at Norwalk Hospital, he completed a residency and fellowship in psychiatry at Yale University. From 1982 until 1996, Dr. Price was on the faculty in the Department of Psychiatry at Yale University, where he served as associate professor and director of the Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. Since 1996, he has been professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Brown University. From 1996 until 2012, he was clinical director, director of Research, and chair of the Institutional Review Board at Butler Hospital, subsequently serving as chief medical officer from 2012 until 2014. In addition to his research activities, Dr. Price has received numerous awards for his teaching and clinical work. He is editor of The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update, principal editor for clinical psychopharmacology of Psychopharmacology, and editor (with I. Stolerman) of the Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology, Second Edition.

Linda L. Carpenter, MD

Linda Carpenter, MD, is chief of the Butler Hospital Mood Disorders Program, and professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. She has been recognized for her work investigating the neurobiology of, and new treatments for, major depression and other mood and anxiety disorders. She has conducted studies of novel drug therapies and device-based neuromodulation treatments (VNS, DBS, TMS, tDCS) for patients with forms of major depression not relieved by standard antidepressant medications. Her federally-funded translational research program has focused on the development of laboratory biomarkers signaling risk for mood/anxiety disorders, and on understanding the impact of early life stress on adult biology.

Dr. Carpenter graduated with a BA in psychology from the University of Michigan in 1986. She then worked for several years in the Mood Disorders Research Program at the Western Psychiatric Institute in Pittsburgh, concurrently completing post-baccalaureate premedical coursework at the University of Pittsburgh. She subsequently obtained her MD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1993. She completed an internship in internal medicine in 1993, and a residency in psychiatry and NIMH-sponsored Biological Sciences Training Program Research Fellowship at Yale in 1997. She moved to Providence RI and joined the Brown faculty in 1997. Since coming to Butler Hospital in 1997, she has served as an attending psychiatrist in the hospital and also been active building a research program focused on stress, mood and anxiety disorders. She is director of the Butler Neuromodulation Clinic, where hundreds of outpatients in the northeast receive adjunctive VNS or TMS therapy as part of routine clinical care for their depression.

Audrey R Tyrka, MD, PhD

Audrey Tyrka, MD, PhD, is the director of Research at Butler Hospital and director of the Laboratory for Clinical and Translational Neuroscience (LCTN) at Butler Hospital, and professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. Dr. Tyrka's research is focused on understanding the links between childhood trauma and physical and psychiatric illnesses. In addition to psychiatric disorders, including major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress and trauma increase risk for medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Dr. Tyrka studies maltreated children and adults with early adversity to understand genetic, epigenetic, neuroendocrine, and neuroimmune effects as they relate to risk for mood and anxiety disorders and related health conditions. The goal of this work is to understand the biology of risk and protection in order to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

Dr. Tyrka also collaborates with Drs. Carpenter, Price, and Philip on studies of novel treatments for major depression, including pharmacotherapies and device-based treatments. She is an attending psychiatrist in the Butler Hospital Neuromodulation Clinic, where patients receive TMS and other neurostimulation therapies for major depression.

Dr. Tyrka received her MD and PhD in medicine and psychology through a combined program at the University of Pennsylvania. She completed a psychiatry residency at Brown Medical School and further research training in clinical neuroscience at the Mood Disorders Research Program and LCTN at Butler Hospital and Brown University.

Noah Philip, MD

Noah Philip, MD, is an attending psychiatrist in the Butler Hospital Neuromodulation Clinic, and assistant professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. His research focuses on the use of technology to understand and treat severe mood and anxiety disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder. This research includes the use of novel frequency parameters in transcranial magnetic stimulation and implementation of innovative technologies including therapy and brain stimulation. This work is complemented by Dr. Philip’s research using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain changes associated with trauma and in the use of functional connectivity to optimize brain stimulation. His neuroimaging work includes use of novel, accelerated acquisition parameters and combination of on-line, or interleaved, MRI/TMS systems to investigate causal relationships between brain stimulation and changes in brain activity.

Dr. Philip received his MD with from Albany Medical College, where he graduated with a Distinction in the Study of Biomedical Ethics and was inducted into the Alpha Omega Alpha honor medical society. He completed his psychiatry residency at Brown University working with Drs. Larry Price, Audrey Tyrka and Linda Carpenter. After residency, he completed a T32 research fellowship and a neuromodulation fellowship, also at Brown. He has been the recipient of numerous national awards, including a Young Investigator Award from NCDEU, a Research Award from the American Psychiatric Association, and a mentored Career Development Award from the US Department of Veterans Affairs.

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