Butler COBRE for Neuromodulation (CCN)

Center for Neuromodulation (CCN)

A 2018 award from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) to Butler Hospital established the Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) on Neuromodulation or CCN. The mission of Butler’s CCN is to support innovative clinical research in neuromodulation (brain stimulation) and the career development of investigators in this field. The work couples brain stimulation methods with readouts of brain activity (e.g., using various neuroimaging, behavioral, and physiological assessment methods) in clinical or clinically relevant populations. The CCN provides a platform for the exchange of scientific insights and technical skills and mentoring so project leaders can move towards scientific independence. A robust pilot project award program provides support for new proposals and scientists who stand to contribute to a sustainable pipeline of researchers in clinical neuromodulation. The CCN focuses on neuropsychiatric illness with the guiding principle that for noninvasive brain stimulation to gain clinical efficacy and implementation, it is imperative to better characterize clinically relevant target circuits and mechanisms of action.

The CCN includes (1) a Design and Analysis Core (DAC) to support rigorous and innovative experimental design and data analytic strategies; (2) a Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Core (NNC) to facilitate the acquisition and processing of high-quality data using noninvasive neurostimulation and neuroimaging methods; (3) an Administrative Core to oversee and coordinate activities to propel the development of investigators towards independence. The CCN will identify and promote the success of new neuromodulation scientists through the recruitment of new PLs and through its Pilot Project program, integrating the resources of the DAC and NNC.

Our Guiding Principles

Our guiding scientific principle is that for the promise of neuromodulation therapies to be fully realized, it is critical to better characterizing their target circuits and mechanisms of action.

Our guiding organizational principle is to create structures and governance to propel promising junior investigators in this field towards independent scientific careers. This involves the following aims:

Implement our management plan and mentorship program to expand the group of clinical-translational researchers doing therapeutically relevant and mechanistically informative neuromodulation research in Rhode Island. We have developed research core resources for the RI scientific community. one to support research design and later data analysis and interpretation, and another to acquire neuromodulation and neuroimaging data using best practices. The administrative core oversees fiscal management, fosters CCN cohesion, and evaluates the Center’s overall progress.

COBRE Center for Neuromodulation Leadership

The CCN Administrative Core, develops design/statistical, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation resources focusing particularly on COBRE projects and new pilot research. The CCN Administrative Core works closely with our partners. These include IDeA Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBRE) Centers and IDeA-Clinical and Translational (CTR) programs in Rhode Island, collaborating entities at/affiliated with Brown University including the Brown Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior (DPHB), Carney Institute for Brain Science, COBRE Center for Central Nervous System Function (CCNSF), Advance Clinical and Translational Research (Advance-CTR) and the Providence VA Medical Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology (CfNN).

Benjamin D. Greenberg, MD, PhD

Director, COBRE Center for Neuromodulation

Dr. Benjamin Greenberg has a BA in psychology from Amherst College, a PhD in neurosciences from UC San Diego, and an MD from the University of Miami, with psychiatry residency at Johns Hopkins. He then led adult OCD research at NIMH, where he performed the first transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in that illness. At Butler Hospital and Brown since 2000, he has focused on invasive neurosurgeries including ventral capsulotomy and deep brain stimulation (DBS). FDA humanitarian approval of DBS for intractable OCD in 2009 was based on that work. His NIH funding has included R21, R01, U01, P50, and P20 grants. He has a secondary focus in psychiatric genetics. As a clinical psychiatrist, he has treated OCD for thirty years; and over the past five years has also treated PTSD, he previously led Butler outpatient services. He directs the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation at Butler Hospital and the RR&D Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology the Providence VAMC (PVAMC), in both roles focusing brain circuit-based approaches to mechanisms of illness, treatment and rehabilitation.

Linda L. Carpenter, MD

Deputy Director, COBRE CCN; Director, Neuromodulation & Neuroimaging Core

Linda L. Carpenter, MD is a Professor of Psychiatry in the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Chief of the Mood Disorders Program at Butler Hospital. She completed her undergraduate psychology degree at the University of Michigan, her MD from the University of Pennsylvania. She did an internship in internal medicine, psychiatry residency training, and a clinical neuroscience research fellowship all at Yale University. She joined the Brown Psychiatry faculty at Brown in 1997 and has continued her path as a physician-scientist investigating the neurobiology of, and new treatments for, major depression and other mood and anxiety disorders at Butler Hospital. She led a 10-year, federally funded translational research program focusing on the development of laboratory biomarkers signaling risk for mood/anxiety disorders, and understanding the impact of early life stress on adult biology. She has also conducted a number of randomized clinical trials sponsored by industry and NIH, investigating investigational drugs and devices for treating depression, including esketamine, Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). She is the founding Director of the Butler Hospital TMS Clinic and Neuromodulation Research Facility. Her lab evaluates new neurostimulation treatments and their mechanisms, using both EEG and fMRI. In addition to her role as Deputy Director of the Butler COBRE Center, she is Director of the Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Core. She works with the COBRE Project Leaders, Brown trainees, and other Brown-affiliated research faculty who incorporate noninvasive brain stimulation techniques into their clinical mechanisms and therapeutics research. Dr. Carpenter also chairs the Butler Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Ana Abrantes, PhD

Associate Director 

Dr. Abrantes completed her undergraduate degree in Psychology at Harvard University and her PhD in clinical psychology at San Diego State University/University of California, San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology. She completed her clinical psychology internship at Brown and stayed on for a NIAAA T32 postdoctoral fellowship in Addiction Treatment at Brown’s Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies. Dr. Abrantes is currently a Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Co-Director of Behavioral Medicine and Addiction Research at Butler Hospital. Dr. Abrantes' research is focused on the development and testing of novel interventions for decreasing relapse risk among individuals with alcohol and other drug use disorders, including nicotine dependence. Her current projects include the use of text messaging, development of smartphone apps, neurostimulation (e.g., tDCS), and EMA/EMI approaches. In addition, Dr. Abrantes’ also conducts research in the area of physical activity promotion for individuals with substance use and mental health disorders. This research includes the testing of Fitbit-supported lifestyle physical activity, physical activity apps, and peer-facilitated approaches. Dr. Abrantes is committed to mentoring trainees and junior faculty, serving as a research mentor on two of Brown’s T32 fellowship programs and as primary or co-mentor for several NIH K awardees. Dr. Abrantes has published over 130 peer-reviewed papers and has been the Principal Investigator or Co-Investigator on over 25 NIH-funded grants. She regularly serves on NIH scientific review panels and is on the editorial board of several academic journals, including serving as Associate Editor of Mental Health and Physical Activity.

Kristen Fortin-Ashburne, MBA

Center Administrator

Kristen Fortin-Ashburne obtained a BA in psychology (sociology minor) from the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth and MBA in Global Business Leadership (Organizational Leadership concentration) from Johnson & Wales University. She joined the CCN leadership team with over sixteen years’ experience in research, health care system administration, operations and project management. Prior to joining CCN, Ms. Fortin-Ashburne was Senior Clinical Research Technologist in Dr. Mary Carskadon’s E.P. Bradley Sleep Research Laboratory located on the Butler Hospital campus. Following her MBA, she was the clinical supervisor in the high-volume UMass Memorial Sleep Disorders Center. Later, she held the position of operations supervisor managing the overall business and academic operations of a large medical center in an underserved area, Tri River Family Health Center of the Blackstone Valley. In addition to CCN programmatic grant management, Ms. Fortin-Ashburne works closely with institutional senior leadership (notably our Hospital Advisory Committee) to streamline processes, enhance growth, and add efficiency to improve operations and quality of services.

Advisory Committees

The Hospital Advisory Committee (HAC) and Internal Advisory Committee (IAC) of the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation provide additional insight on COBRE development and implementation. The HAC members represent different areas of expertise relevant to Butler Hospital, Care New England hospital operations, and infrastructure design. The IAC members represent different areas of expertise relevant to partnering institutions and provide oversight on themes and operations, and are committed to the development of the Center. The primary role of the IAC has been to support the Executive Committee during COBRE implementation with four main advisory goals: 1) providing operational feedback based; 2) identifying cross-institutional resources and recommendations to enhance COBRE Cores, investigator projects, and mentorship program, and 3) guiding implementation and business plan toward a Phase II and Phase III.

Hospital Advisory Committee

Stephen Burke, MBA, Vice President of Finance, Butler Hospital, Care New England
Mary Marran, MA, OT, MBA, Chair, President and Chief Operating Officer, Butler Hospital, Care New England
Steven Brown, ITILv3, IT Site Manager Academic and Research, Care New England

Internal Advisory Committee

Guarav Choudhary, MD, Professor of Medicine, Associate Chief of Staff (Research), Providence VA Medical Center; Director of the CardioPulmonary Vascular Biology Center for Biomedical Research Excellence, Providence VA Medical Center
John Davenport, PhD, Managing Director, Brown Institute of Brain Science, Brown University
Lawrence Price, MD, Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University
Steve Rasmussen, MD, Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; Chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School Brown University
Sharon Rounds, MD, Associate Dean for Clinical Affairs, Professor of Medicine, Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Director, Advance-CTR Brown University

The External Advisory Committee (EAC) of the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation primary role is to participate in COBRE Center evaluation, including an evaluation of the Project Leaders’ progress, the effectiveness of the COBRE mentorship, and the usefulness of Core services. EAC members have been chosen for their robust backgrounds as leading investigators and mentors, their expertise in neuromodulation, and areas of expertise that are complementary to the COBRE projects.

External Advisory Committee

Erika Forbes, PhD, Professor of Psychiatry, Pediatrics, Psychology and Clinical and Translational Science University of Pittsburgh
Mark George, MD, Endowed Chair, Layton McCurdy Endowed Chair in Psychiatry Medical University of South Carolina
Stephan Taylor, MD, EAC Chair, Professor and Associate Chair for Research and Research Regulatory Affairs University of Michigan
Eric Wassermann, MD, Investigator, Behavioral Neurology National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Research Core Team


Linda Carpenter, MD

Deputy Director, COBRE CCN; Director, Neuromodulation & Neuroimaging Core

Noah Philip, MD

Associate Director, Neuromodulation & Neuroimaging Core

Jerome Sanes, PhD

MRF Liaison

Eric Tirrell

Neuromodulation Research Manager

Rich Jones, Sc.D.

Co-Director, Design & Analysis Core 

Jennifer Barredo, PhD

Director, Design & Analysis Core

Asi (Polly) Gobin

Research Data Manager

W. Luke Acuff, MS

Associate Research Scientist

Hannah Swearingen, MSc

Research Coordinator

Meghan Gonsalves, PhD

Postdoctoral Research Fellow & Staff Scientist

CCN Project Leaders


Nicole C. McLaughlin, PhD

Previously funded Project EPIC: Brain Circuitry of inhibitory control in young adults: Modulation with tDCS

Dr. McLaughlin is Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and a neuropsychologist at Butler Hospital. She completed a PhD in clinical psychology at Suffolk University and then postdoctoral training in neuropsychology at Brown University and Butler Hospital, where she directs its psychiatric neurosurgery program. She has extensively studied prefrontal-subcortical functioning across neuropsychiatric disorders, with a more recent emphasis on the assessment of brain changes after neurocircuit-based interventions. She continues this line of research as a CCN Project Leader in COBRE, with a project investigating the inhibitory control (IC) network in young adults with deficits in ‘real-world’ IC (implicated in many neuropsychiatric illnesses); and assesses how a noninvasive method, high-definition-transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) modulates MRI measures of functional connectivity within that network.

Mascha van't Wout-Frank, PhD

Previously funded Project RISE: Effects of tDCS timing on safety memory in PTSD

Dr. van’t Wout-Frank is Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Alpert Medical School, Brown University. She completed a doctoral degree in the Netherlands - where she was born - in cognitive neuropsychiatry, focusing on emotion processing in schizophrenia and related disorders. Following her PhD, Dr. van’t Wout-Frank continued work on emotional and social cognition at the University of Arizona, and later Brown University, in postdoctoral research on decision making. At Brown she became particularly interested in using noninvasive brain stimulation to understand and modify negative emotions, such as fear, regret and pain, and has worked to develop neuromodulation to treat posttraumatic stress disorder, in collaboration with the Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology at the Providence VA Medical Center. Her CCN project extends that work by testing how the timing of noninvasive tDCS in a fear extinction paradigm affects safety learning, safety memory, and MRI-measured brain activity in individuals with posttraumatic stress symptoms, knowledge important to optimizing clinical neuromodulation.

Sarah Garnaat, PhD

Previously funded Project FLEX: Modulating prefrontal circuits underlying behavioral flexibility in OCD: a TMS study


Joshua Brown, MD, PhD

Previously funded Project TIPS: Determining whether TMS changes the brain through brain synaptic plasticity

Pilot Project Leaders

Kristen Benito, PhD

Previously funded Project: TMS for improving Response Inhibition in Adolescents

Dr. Benito is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and is the Research and Quality Improvement Lead at the Pediatric Anxiety Research Center (PARC) at Bradley Hospital. She completed a PhD in clinical psychology at the University of Florida and a postdoctoral T32 fellowship at Brown University. Dr. Benito leads a program of research focused on understanding treatment processes and mechanism of change in exposure therapy for youth and using this knowledge to 1) augment and personalize treatment, 2) develop new treatments, and 3) improve treatment delivery in practice settings. Since joining the Brown faculty in 2012, she has received continuous funding from NIH (R21/R33 and R01 grants) as well as other federal and private organizations. As a clinical psychologist, Dr. Benito has provided exposure therapy for OCD and anxiety disorders for more than 15 years. Dr. Benito’s CCN pilot project will extend her program of research to examine neuromodulation as an exposure augmentation strategy for youth. This pilot project will test whether TMS can improve response inhibition, an important skill for successful exposure therapy, in adolescents with OCD.

Brian Kavanaugh, PsyD

Previously funded Project: Modulation of frontoparietal dynamics underlying adolescent working memory deficits.

Dr. Kavanaugh is a pediatric neuropsychologist at E. P. Bradley Hospital and an assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University. He is board certified in clinical neuropsychology through the American Board of Professional Psychology, with a pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty. He completed his doctoral degree in clinical psychology at Antioch University New England, pediatric neuropsychology internship at the Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and pediatric neuropsychology fellowship at E. P. Bradley Hospital/Alpert Medical School of Brown University. His clinical and research work centers on how and why cognitive dysfunction emerges in childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. His research uses electroencephalography, non-invasive brain stimulation, and behavioral paradigms to measure and modulate the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in children and adolescents.

Andrew Fukuda, MD, PhD

Previously funded Project: Examining Perivascular Space Changes in Depressed Patients Receiving TMS: Pilot Study

Dr. Andrew M. Fukuda is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and an attending Psychiatrist at Butler Hospital. He received his MD/PhD from Loma Linda University and completed his General Psychiatry Residency Training in the NIMH funded R25 Research Track at Brown University / Butler Hospital, where he served as Chief Resident in his final year. Dr. Fukuda is leading various studies examining the mechanisms of risk for depression as well as biomarkers of treatment response, with a particular interest in examining the roles of non-neuronal systems in depression pathology and their involvement in the therapeutic mechanisms of action of neuromodulation treatments. Aside from his research and clinical passion, he is involved in several local and national committees and is active in trainee education and mentorship.

Brian Theyel, MD, PhD

Previously funded Project: Differential effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on biophysically distinct neurons

Brian Theyel, M.D., Ph.D. is a Psychiatrist with a research interest in basic neuroscience. His work concentrates on the investigation of circuit abnormalities in autism, schizophrenia, and PTSD. He has a special interest in the roles that abnormalities in cortical interneurons play in these diseases and has most recently discovered that an important inhibitory interneuron puts “the brakes” on brain activity by firing repeatedly in the “backward” direction when activity levels get too high. He is currently working to understand how these neurons sense elevated levels of brain activity and engage this mechanism and believes that the myriad of mutations that both alter these inhibitory brain cells and are known to cause human disease might impact this property. His main methodologic research involves the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, local field potential recordings, in vitro neuroimaging, a cell-specific gene knockout strategy, and advanced neuroanatomical techniques.

Maggie Bublitz, PhD

Maggie Bublitz, PhD

Project: Targeting the brain-heart axis with TMS among reproductive aged women with PTSD

Maggie Bublitz, PhD is a graduate of the University of British Columbia’s program in clinical psychology. She completed her clinical psychology internship and postdoctoral fellowship in cardiovascular behavioral medicine at Brown Medical School. Dr. Bublitz is an associate professor in the department of psychiatry and human behavior and the department of medicine at Brown Medical School. She is a practicing clinical psychologist in women’s behavioral medicine and directs the integrated behavioral health service at the Women’s Primary Care Practice at the Women’s Medicine Collaborative (The Miriam Hospital).

Ana Abrantes, PhD

Ana Abrantes, PhD

Project: Aerobic exercise to augment the plasticity effect of rTMS in patients with treatment resistant depression

Dr. Abrantes is Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Co-Director of Behavioral Medicine and Addiction Research at Butler Hospital. Dr. Abrantes' research is focused on the development and testing of novel interventions for decreasing relapse risk among individuals with alcohol and other drug use disorders, including nicotine dependence. Her current projects include using text messaging, developing smartphone apps, neurostimulation (e.g., tDCS), and EMA/EMI approaches.

Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Core (NNC)


The Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Core (NNC) facilitates the research goals of COBRE Project Leaders and pilot grant investigators and benefits the broader neuromodulation research community by providing expert support, training, assistance, and advice to its constituents in the practical aspects of implementation, data collection, and project management related to neuroimaging and neurostimulation methods. The NNC addresses a critical need, namely, to provide Project Leaders with unique resources, skills, and support for using the best methods and practices surrounding neuroimaging and neuromodulation in clinical neuropsychiatric populations. The NNC provides key services for research projects and creates an enduring resource that offers neuromodulation researchers a series of educational seminars, hands-on workshops, and customized training opportunities, high-level consultative and medical input, and use of a specialty research facility at Butler Hospital with lab space, equipment, and medical support.

NNC Specific Aims

  1. Provide support, training and assistance to COBRE Project Leaders (PLs) and their teams to promote and facilitate the acquisition of high quality neuroimaging data.
  2. Provide support training and assistance to COBRE PLs and their teams to promote and facilitate the application of high quality neuromodulation.  
  3. Establish core resources with a trajectory toward self-sustaining and enduring status that will serve the larger neuromodulation research community in Rhode Island.

COBRE Center for Neuromodulation Equipment 

  • Researchers receive specialized training and access to our lab space and state of the art equipment.
  • For more information on the equipment available to investigators, visit the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation Equipment Catalog.

Design and Analysis Core

The Design and Analysis Core (DAC) provides experimental design, statistical support, and neuroimaging consultation services to COBRE Project Leaders and the broader scientific research community. DAC faculty are affiliated with the Quantitative Sciences Program (QSP) of the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology at Providence VA Medical Center. Core Leader Richard Jones, ScD is a psychiatric epidemiologist and methodologies, and the director of the QSP. Core Co-Leader Jennifer Barredo, PhD is a neuroscientist with expertise in neuroimaging methodologies including advanced diffusion imaging, multimodal analysis, and machine learning. The DAC also maintains scientific computing resources and workflows available to COBRE project and pilot investigators and sponsors educational seminars and workshops.

Rich Jones, ScD

Jennifer Barredo, PhD

DAC Specific Aims

  1. Support CNN project leaders in the design and analysis of clinical translational research projects.
  2. Enhance and refine existing computing infrastructure, support clinical translational neuroscience research at Butler Hospital, coordinate and facilitate access to these resources in support of CCN projects and pilots. 
  3. Enhance clinical neuroscience research in the Rhode Island community by participating in a broad educational mission in clinical neurosciences. This is accomplished by sponsoring speakers, conducting workshops, providing 1:1 training opportunities for PLs and their staff and collaborators.

Quantitative Sciences Program of the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and the Norman Prince Neurosciences Institute

NNC and DAC Core Services

  • Support Project Logistics
  • Provide Training and Certifications
  • Consultation on technical and medical aspects of protocols
  • Guidance and Infrastructure for neuroimaging acquisition and analysis
  • Workshops led by local and national experts on neuromodulation

Research Cores Training and Events

The Monthly Brain Stimulation Meeting

The Monthly Brain Stimulation Meeting typically meets the last Friday of every month from 12:00 pm to 1:00 pm. This meeting brings together scientists, students, post-docs, graduate students, and research assistants from the research community to communicate the results of new research and topics relating to neuromodulation, neuroimaging, or electrophysiological studies of brain circuitry and dynamics relevant to neuromodulation.

To learn more about the Brain Stimulation meeting or if would like to request a guest speaker or research topic, please send inquiries to COBRECCN@CareNE.org (include your Name, institution, title, contact information).

Research Core

COBRE Center for Neuromodulation Research Core Inquiry form

Pilot Program

The COBRE Center for Neuromodulation aims to increase the quantity and quality of research in clinical neuromodulation (brain stimulation) in Rhode Island. One means of attaining this goal is identifying and nurturing talented young neuromodulation investigators or established investigators who want to create a new research line in the arena of neuromodulation. The Pilot Program supports the COBRE’s growth by encouraging additional scholarship in the COBREs thematic areas and developing potential new COBRE Project Leaders.

Our Center will award up to three pilot project awards annually, depending on available funding, for research related to Neuromodulation. Neuromodulation research encompasses the development of new brain stimulation targets, therapeutic interventions, or the use of neuromodulatory tools to otherwise understand and address neuropsychiatric disorders or their mechanisms. We aim to enable investigators to collect preliminary data in support of grant applications for independent external research funding, especially from the NIH. Pilot project leaders can take advantage of the COBRE CCN community to help guide their science and career development.

Pilot project leaders will have access to the COBRE’s three interdisciplinary cores. These cores will provide infrastructure, consultation, and additional support services to ensure the successful career development of the funded junior investigator and help them apply for external, independent funding. The three Cores include an Administrative Core, a Design and Analysis Core (DAC), and a Neuromodulation and Neuroimaging Core (NNC).

Program Requirements
  • Research must be thematically related to clinical Neuromodulation
  • The proposed pilot project should require funding for no more than 12 months
What you'll need before beginning the application process:
  • Structured, one-page overview of research aims, significance, and approach
  • References
  • NIH-formatted bio-sketch for each investigator and mentor
  • Documentation of Other Support
To ensure the proposed research fits with the mission of the COBRE CCN, we encourage interested applicants to submit the above items to the CCN Administrator, Kristen Fortin-Ashburne at KFortinAshburne@butler.org before beginning the application process. 



For those who wish to be added to the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation newsletter distribution list, please send the following contact information to cobreccn@carene.org:

  • First and last name
  • Primary research role
  • Preferred email address
  • Name of your institution
  • Name of your research group
Acknowledgment and Citing

Research reported in this website was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM130452. If you have received funding, consultation, mentorship, research support services, materials, training, access to shared equipment and/or space from the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation Cores, please acknowledge the COBRE Center for Neuromodulation by using the following statement:

Grant citing in all abstracts (presentations), and publications by investigators: “Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P20GM130452, Center for Biomedical Research Excellence, Center for Neuromodulation. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.”

Core Facility users citing:
“Research was facilitated by the National Institute Of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number P20GM130452, Center for Biomedical Research Excellence, Center for Neuromodulation. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health”  

Please also send the title of your presentation, and where and when you presented the work or the citation for your manuscript. COBRECCN@CareNE.org

Brown University Carney Institute for Brain Science  

Brown University Advance Clinical Translational Research  


Providence VA Medical Center Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology (CfNN)  

Quantitative Sciences Program

This portion of our website is supported by the COBRE Center of Neuromodulation Funded by the National Institutes of Health grant number P20GM130452. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health


Gonsalves MA, White TL, Barredo J, DeMayo MM, DeLuca E, Harris AD, Carpenter LL. Cortical glutamate, Glx, and total N-acetylaspartate: potential biomarkers of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment response and outcomes in major depression. Transl Psychiatry. 2024 Jan 6;14(1):5. doi: 10.1038/s41398-023-02715-9. PMID: 38184652; PMCID: PMC10771455.

Kavanaugh BC, Parade S, Seifer R, McLaughlin NCR, Tirrell E, Festa EK, Oberman LM, Novick AM, Carpenter LL, Tyrka AR. Childhood stress, gender, and cognitive control: Midline theta power. J Psychiatr Res. 2024 Jan;169:298-306. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2023.11.046. Epub 2023 Dec 2. PMID: 38070470.

Kavanaugh BC, Fukuda AM, Gemelli ZT, Thorpe R, Tirrell E, Vigne M, Jones SR, Carpenter LL. Pre-treatment frontal beta events are associated with executive dysfunction improvement after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression: A preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res. 2023 Dec;168:71-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2023.10.024. Epub 2023 Oct 17. PMID: 37897839.

Brown JC, Goldszer IM, Brooks MC, Milano NJ. An Evaluation of the Emerging Techniques in Sports-Related Concussion. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2023 Jul 1;40(5):384-390. doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000879. Epub 2023 Mar 16. PMID: 36930205; PMCID: PMC10329722.

van Rooij SJH, Arulpragasam AR, McDonald WM, Philip NS. Accelerated TMS - moving quickly into the future of depression treatment. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2023 May 22. doi: 10.1038/s41386-023-01599-z. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37217771.

Berlow YA, Zandvakili A, Brennan MC, Williams LM, Price LH, Philip NS. Modeling the antidepressant treatment response to transcranial magnetic stimulation using an exponential decay function. Sci Rep. 2023 May 2;13(1):7138. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-33599-w. PMID: 37130868; PMCID: PMC10154303. 

McLaughlin NCR, Magnotti JF, Banks GP, Nanda P, Hoexter MQ, Lopes AC, Batistuzzo MC, Asaad WF, Stewart C, Paulo D, Noren G, Greenberg BD, Malloy P, Salloway S, Correia S, Pathak Y, Sheehan J, Marsland R, Gorgulho A, De Salles A, Miguel EC, Rasmussen SA, Sheth SA. Gamma knife capsulotomy for intractable OCD: Neuroimage analysis of lesion size, location, and clinical response. Transl Psychiatry. 2023 Apr 26;13(1):134. doi: 10.1038/s41398-023-02425-2. PMID: 37185805; PMCID: PMC10130137.

Morris AT, Temereanca S, Zandvakili A, Thorpe R, Sliva DD, Greenberg BD, Carpenter LL, Philip NS, Jones SR. Fronto-central resting-state 15-29 Hz transient beta events change with therapeutic transcranial magnetic stimulation for posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder. Sci Rep. 2023 Apr 19;13(1):6366. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-32801-3. PMID: 37076496; PMCID: PMC10115889. 

Giff A, Noren G, Magnotti J, Lopes AC, Batistuzzo MC, Hoexter M, Greenberg B, Marsland R, Miguel EC, Rasmussen S, McLaughlin N. Spatial normalization discrepancies between native and MNI152 brain template scans in gamma ventral capsulotomy patients. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2023 Mar;329:111595. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2023.111595. Epub 2023 Jan 17. PMID: 36680842; PMCID: PMC10153791.

Brown JC, Higgins ES, George MS. Synaptic Plasticity 101: The Story of the AMPA Receptor for the Brain Stimulation Practitioner. Neuromodulation. 2022 Dec;25(8):1289-1298. doi: 10.1016/j.neurom.2021.09.003. Epub 2021 Dec 18. PMID: 35088731.

Gaudet CE, Castelluccio B, Gold D, McLaughlin NCR, Correia S. Limitations of performance validity tests in dementia evaluations: The role of base rates. Psychol Assess. 2022 Nov;34(11):1074-1080. doi: 10.1037/pas0001166. Epub 2022 Sep 22. PMID: 36136812; PMCID: PMC10080457.

Fukuda AM, Kang JWD, Gobin AP, Tirrell E, Kokdere F, Carpenter LL. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on anhedonia in treatment resistant major depressive disorder. Brain Behav. 2021 Sep;11(9):e2329. doi: 10.1002/brb3.2329. Epub 2021 Aug 28. PMID: 34453491; PMCID: PMC8442591.

Philip NS, Arulpragasam AR. Reaching for the unreachable: low intensity focused ultrasound for non-invasive deep brain stimulation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2023 Jan;48(1):251-252. doi: 10.1038/s41386-022-01386-2. PMID: 35869281; PMCID: PMC9700833.

Lechner WV, Philip NS, Kahler CW, Houben K, Tirrell E, Carpenter LL. Combined Working Memory Training and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Demonstrates Low Feasibility and Potentially Worse Outcomes on Delay to Smoking and Cognitive Tasks: A Randomized 2 × 2 Factorial Design Pilot and Feasibility Study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Nov 12;24(12):1871-1880. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntac183. PMID: 35907262; PMCID: PMC9653077.

Gonsalves MA, White TL, Barredo J, Fukuda AM, Joyce HE, Harris AD, Carpenter LL. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Associated Changes in Neocortical Metabolites in Major Depression: A Systematic Review. Neuroimage Clin. 2022;35:103049. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2022.103049. Epub 2022 May 16. PMID: 35738081; PMCID: PMC9233277.

Seligowski AV, Webber TK, Marvar PJ, Ressler KJ, Philip NS. Involvement of the brain-heart axis in the link between PTSD and cardiovascular disease. Depress Anxiety. 2022 Oct;39(10-11):663-674. doi: 10.1002/da.23271. Epub 2022 Jun 16. PMID: 35708302; PMCID: PMC9588548.

Kweon J, Vigne M, Jones R, George MS, Carpenter LL, Brown JC. A replication study of NMDA receptor agonism sufficiency to enhance 10-Hz rTMS-induced motor cortex plasticity. Brain Stimul. 2022 Nov-Dec;15(6):1372-1374. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2022.09.014. Epub 2022 Sep 27. PMID: 36180040.

Kassel MT, Lositsky O, Vaidya AR, Badre D, Malloy PF, Greenberg BD, Marsland R, Noren G, Sherman A, Rasmussen SA, McLaughlin NCR. Differential assessment of frontally-mediated behaviors between self- and informant-report in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder following gamma ventral capsulotomy. Neuropsychologia. 2022 Jun 6;170:108211. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2022.108211. Epub 2022 Mar 18. PMID: 35307368.

Carpenter LL, Kronenberg EF, Tirrell E, Kokdere F, Beck QM, Temereanca S, Fukuda AM, Garikapati S, Hagberg S. Mechanical Affective Touch Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Feasibility, Clinical Outcomes, and Electroencephalography Biomarkers From an Open-Label Trial. Front Psychiatry. 2022 Apr 22;13:877574. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.877574. PMID: 35530031; PMCID: PMC9072623.

Arulpragasam AR, van 't Wout-Frank M, Barredo J, Faucher CR, Greenberg BD, Philip NS. Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Non-invasive and Reversible Deep Brain Neuromodulation-A Paradigm Shift in Psychiatric Research. Front Psychiatry. 2022 Feb 24;13:825802. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.825802. PMID: 35280168; PMCID: PMC8907584.

Gold MC, Yuan S, Tirrell E, Kronenberg EF, Kang JWD, Hindley L, Sherif M, Brown JC, Carpenter LL. Large-scale EEG neural network changes in response to therapeutic TMS. Brain Stimul. 2022 Mar-Apr;15(2):316-325. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2022.01.007. Epub 2022 Jan 17. PMID: 35051642; PMCID: PMC8957581.

Gonsalves MA, Beck QM, Fukuda AM, Tirrell E, Kokdere F, Kronenberg EF, Iadarola ND, Hagberg S, Carpenter LL, Barredo J. Mechanical Affective Touch Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Effects on Resting State Functional Connectivity. Neuromodulation. 2022 Jan 6:S1094-7159(21)06182-1. doi: 10.1016/j.neurom.2021.10.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35088729.

Bozzay ML, Brigido S, van 't Wout-Frank M, Aiken E, Swift R, Philip NS. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Veterans with Mild Alcohol Use Disorder. J Affect Disord. 2021 Oct 1;293:314-319. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.039. Epub 2021 Jun 24. PMID: 34229284; PMCID: PMC8349789.

Cosmo C, Berlow YA, Grisanzio KA, Fleming SL, Rashed Ahmed AP, Brennan MC, Carpenter LL, Philip NS. Transdiagnostic Symptom Subtypes to Predict Response to Therapeutic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Major Depressive Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. J Pers Med. 2022 Feb 6;12(2):224. doi: 10.3390/jpm12020224. PMID: 35207712; PMCID: PMC8874724.  

Philip NS, Doherty RA, Faucher C, Aiken E, van 't Wout-Frank M. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depression: Comparing Commonly Used Clinical Protocols. J Trauma Stress. 2022 Feb;35(1):101-108. doi: 10.1002/jts.22686. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33973681; PMCID: PMC8581062.

Faucher CR, Doherty RA, Philip NS, Harle ASM, Cole JJE, Van't Wout-Frank M. Is there a neuroscience-based, mechanistic rationale for transcranial direct current stimulation as an adjunct treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder? Behav Neurosci. 2021 Dec;135(6):702-713. doi: 10.1037/bne0000487. Epub 2021 Aug 2. PMID: 34338547; PMCID: PMC8648962.

Yuan S, Brown JC, Gold M, Tirrell E, Jones RN, Carpenter LL. Effects of single-dose L-theanine on motor cortex excitability. Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 Sep;132(9):2062-2064. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2021.07.003. Epub 2021 Jul 10. PMID: 34293527; PMCID: PMC8384717.

Cosmo C, Seligowski AV, Aiken EM, Van't Wout-Frank M, Philip NS. Heart Rate Variability Features as Predictors of Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation Response in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Neuromodulation. 2021 Sep 27. doi: 10.1111/ner.13529. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34570925.

Brown JC, Yuan S, DeVries WH, Armstrong NM, Korte JE, Sahlem GL, Carpenter LL, George MS. NMDA-receptor agonist reveals LTP-like properties of 10-Hz rTMS in the human motor cortex. Brain Stimul. 2021 May-Jun;14(3):619-621. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2021.03.016. Epub 2021 Mar 29. PMID: 33794339; PMCID: PMC8164996.

McLaughlin NCR, Lauro PM, Patrick MT, Pucci FG, Barrios-Anderson A, Greenberg BD, Rasmussen SA, Asaad WF. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Laser Thermal Ventral Capsulotomy for Intractable Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Neurosurgery. 2021 May 13;88(6):1128-1135. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyab050. PMID: 33693795; PMCID: PMC8223246.

Fried PJ, Santarnecchi E, Antal A, Bartres-Faz D, Bestmann S, Carpenter LL, Celnik P, Edwards D, Farzan F, Fecteau S, George MS, He B, Kim YH, Leocani L, Lisanby SH, Loo C, Luber B, Nitsche MA,

Paulus W, Rossi S, Rossini PM, Rothwell J, Sack AT, Thut G, Ugawa Y, Ziemann U, Hallett M, Pascual-Leone A. Training in the practice of noninvasive brain stimulation: Recommendations from an IFCN committee. Clin Neurophysiol. 2021 Mar;132(3):819-837. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2020.11.018. Epub 2020 Dec 3. PMID: 33549501. 

Barredo J, Bozzay ML, Primack JM, Schatten HT, Armey MF, Carpenter LL, Philip NS. Translating Interventional Neuroscience to Suicide: It's About Time. Biol Psychiatry. 2021 Jun 1;89(11):1073-1083. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.01.013. Epub 2021 Feb 1. PMID: 33820628.

Philip NS, Doherty RA, Faucher C, Aiken E, van 't Wout-Frank M. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depression: Comparing Commonly Used Clinical Protocols. J Trauma Stress. 2021 May 11. doi: 10.1002/jts.22686. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33973681.

Brigido S, Bozzay M, Philip NS. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity Does Not Predict Depression Improvement, but May Impact Clinical Response and Remission. J Clin Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 30;82(3):20l13751. doi: 10.4088/JCP.20l13751. PMID: 34000108; PMCID: PMC8177072.

Cosmo C, Zandvakili A, Petrosino NJ, Berlow YA, Philip NS. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Recent Critical Advances in Patient Care. Curr Treat Options Psychiatry. 2021 Mar 11:1-17. doi: 10.1007/s40501-021-00238-y. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33723500; PMCID: PMC7946620.

Greenberg BD, Philip NS, Fortin-Ashburne K, Carpenter LL. The COBRE Center for Neuromodulation (CCN) at Butler Hospital: Clinical-Translational Research in Human Brain Stimulation. R I Med J (2013). 2021 Mar 1;104(2):30-33. PMID: 33648316.

Barredo J, Berlow Y, Swearingen HR, Greenberg BD, Carpenter LL, Philip NS. Multimodal Elements of Suicidality Reduction After Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Neuromodulation. 2021 Mar 1. doi: 10.1111/ner.13376. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33650209.

Zandvakili A, Swearingen HR, Philip NS. Changes in functional connectivity after theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation for post-traumatic stress disorder: a machine-learning study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2021 Feb;271(1):29-37. doi: 10.1007/s00406-020-01172-5. Epub 2020 Jul 27. PMID: 32719969; PMCID: PMC7867551.

van 't Wout-Frank M, Philip NS. Simultaneous Application of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation during Virtual Reality Exposure J Vis Exp. 2021 Jan 18;(167):10.3791/61795. doi: 10.3791/61795. PMID: 33522512; PMCID: PMC8140328.

Berlow YA, Zandvakili A, Philip NS. Low-frequency right-sided and high frequency left-sided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression: The evidence of equivalence. Brain Stimul. 2020 Nov-Dec;13(6):1793-1795. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2020.10.005. Epub 2020 Oct 13. PMID: 33065359; PMCID: PMC7552991.

Kokdere F, Tirrell E, Fukuda AM, Gobin AP, Kavanaugh BC, Price LH, Carpenter LL. Do deviations from the 5 sessions per week schedule impact outcomes of transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depressive disorder? Brain Stimul. 2020 Nov-Dec;13(6):1491-1493. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2020.08.001. Epub 2020 Aug 6. PMID: 32768691; PMCID: PMC8111778.

Fukuda AM, Hindley LE, Kang JWD, Tirrell E, Tyrka AR, Ayala A, Carpenter LL. Peripheral vascular endothelial growth factor changes after transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression. Neuroreport. 2020 Nov 4;31(16):1121-1127. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001523. PMID: 32956213; PMCID: PMC7541741.

van 't Wout-Frank M, Shea MT, Sorensen DO, Faucher CR, Greenberg BD, Philip NS. A Secondary Analysis on Effects of Theta Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Reduce Anger in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Neuromodulation. 2020 Sep 17. doi: 10.1111/ner.13256. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32945055.

Silveira VP, Frydman I, Fontenelle LF, Mattos P, de Oliveira-Souza R, Moll J, Hoexter MQ, Miguel EC, McLaughlin NCR, Shephard E, Batistuzzo MC. Exploring response inhibition and error monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2020 Jul;126:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.04.002. Epub 2020 Apr 21. PMID: 32413597; PMCID: PMC7313630.

Bozzay ML, Primack J, Barredo J, Philip NS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation to reduce suicidality - A review and naturalistic outcomes. J Psychiatr Res. 2020 Jun;125:106-112. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.03.016. Epub 2020 Mar 28. PMID: 32251917; PMCID: PMC7197489.

Philip NS, McLaughlin NC, Carpenter LL, Phillips ML, Liu H, Haber SN, Greenberg BD. Transient aphasia induced by intermittent theta-burst stimulation. Brain Stimul. 2020 Jul-Aug;13(4):941-942. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.013. Epub 2020 Mar 25. PMID: 32380444; PMCID: PMC7343258.

Petrosino NJ, Wout-Frank MV', Aiken E, Swearingen HR, Barredo J, Zandvakili A, Philip NS. One-year clinical outcomes following theta-burst stimulation for post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2020 May;45(6):940-946. doi: 10.1038/s41386-019-0584-4. Epub 2019 Dec 3. PMID: 31794974; PMCID: PMC7162862.

Beck QM, Tirrell E, Fukuda AM, Kokdere F, Carpenter LL. Can early treatment response serve as a predictor of antidepressant outcome of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation? Brain Stimul.2020 Mar-Apr;13(2):420-421. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2019.12.002. Epub 2019 Dec 16. PMID: 31882372; PMCID: PMC8094132.

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